Description Plasmid, in microbiology, an extrachromosomal genetic element that occurs in many bacterial strains. Plasmids are circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules that replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome. They are not essential to the bacterium but may confer a selective advantage. One class of plasmids, colicinogenic (or Col) factors, determines the production of proteins called … Read more

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Introduction¬† PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a revolutionary method developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s. Gentaur PCR is based on the use of DNA polymerase’s ability to synthesize a new DNA strand complementary to the offered template strand. Because DNA polymerase can add a nucleotide only to a preexisting 3′-OH group, it needs a … Read more


Introduction Mitosis is a process of cell duplication or reproduction, during which one cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter cells. Strictly applied, the term mitosis is used to describe the duplication and distribution of chromosomes, the structures that carry genetic information. Following is a brief treatment of mitosis. For full treatment, see Growth: … Read more